Formation and Evaluation of Act and Anticipate Hazard Perception Training (AAHPT) intervention for young-novice drivers
Our most recent publication with regard to training young novice drivers on hazard perception co-authored with two of my former Ph.D. students Anat Meir and Avinoam Borowsky. Here we describe the foundations of the AAHPT intervention, as well as an assesment of its impact based on computerized hazard perception test.
To appear shortly in Traffic Injury Prevention.
Objective: Young-novice drivers’ poor hazard perception (HP) skills are a prominent cause for their over-involvement in traffic crashes. HP, the ability to read the road and anticipate forthcoming events, is receptive to training. This study explored the formation and evaluation of a new HP training intervention – the Act and Anticipate Hazard Perception Training (AAHPT), which is based upon exposing young-novice drivers to a vast array of actual traffic hazards, aiming to enhance their ability to anticipate potential hazards during testing. Method: Forty young-novices underwent one of three AAHPT intervention modes (‘Active’, ‘Instructional’ or ‘Hybrid’) or a control group. ‘Active’ members observed video-based traffic-scenes and were asked to press a response button each time they detected a hazard. ‘Instructional’ members underwent a tutorial which included both written material and video-based examples regarding HP. ‘Hybrid’ members received a condensed theoretical component followed by a succinct ‘Active’ component. Control was presented with a road safety tutorial. Approximately one week later, participants performed a hazard perception test (HPT), during which they observed other movies and pressed a response button each time they detected a hazard. Twenty one experienced drivers also performed the HPT and served as a gold standard for comparison. Results: Overall, the ‘Active’ and the ‘Hybrid’ modes were more aware of potential hazards relative to the control. Conclusions: Inclusion of an active-practical component generates an effective intervention. Using several evaluation measurements aids performance assessment process. Advantages of each of the training methodologies are discussed.
Keywords: skill, training, experience, hazard perception, novice drivers, response time
Participants in the Instructional based mode observed slides as the one shown here
Call for Papers
The conference will be held on January 15th, 2013 at the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya. It will include a keynote and 3 sessions, each dedicated to different aspects of human-computer interaction.
Submission Date: December 6th.
Notification of acceptance: December 20th.
Conference: January 15th. (Location: IDC Herzliya)
Conference program is now available.
If you plan to attend don’t forget to register at the conference website http://davidshinar.eventbrite.com/ no later than September 30, 2012.
click here to download the Traffic Safety conference program
Save the date!!!!! October 16, 2012
Traffic Safety: Current Issues and Emerging Directions
Conference in Honor of David Shinar
A conference to honor David Shinar upon his retirement will be hosted by the Department of Industrial Engineering and Management at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) on Tuesday October 16, 2012. The conference is co-sponsored by Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Ran Naor Foundation, and the National Road Safety Authority. Leading invited scientists in the different areas spanned by David Shinar’s research will present their work in a one-day conference. A reception with David Shinar will follow the conference.
- List of speakers (in alphabetical order):
- Dr. Hillel Bar-Gera (Israel)
- Prof. ShlomoBekhor (Israel)
- Prof. Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist (Finland)
- Prof. Shalom Hakkert (Israel)
- Prof. Ezra Hauer (Canada/Israel)
- Prof. Richard van der Horst (The Netherlands
- Prof. John D. Lee (U.S.A.)
- Dr. Tsippy Lotan (Israel)
- Dr. Tal Oron-Gilad (Israel)
- Dr. Adi Ronen (Israel)
- Prof. Dov Zihar(Israel)
- The conference organizers welcome participation by any members of the scientific and traffic safety community
- The conference and reception will be held at Ben Gurion University, Senate Building auditorium.
- Registration to the conference is free of charge. However, because space is limited attendees must register by September 30, 2012 at the conference registration website: http://davidshinar.eventbrite.com/
For additional information contact Tal Oron-Gilad at email@example.com or Adi Ronen at firstname.lastname@example.org
This AAAI Symposium will explore the various aspects and meanings of trust between humans and machines in various situational contexts, and the social dynamics of trust in teams or organizations composed of autonomous machines working together with humans. We will seek to identify and/or develop methods for engendering trust between humans and autonomous machines, to consider the static and dynamic aspects of trust, and to propose metrics for measuring trust. Details, including invited speakers and program members, are displayed here at: https://sites.google.com/site/aaais2013trust/ with a summary located at AAAI’s Spring Symposia at: http://www.aaai.org/Symposia/Spring/sss13.php.
Important dates: October 5 - Abstracts are due
This summer our team will be presenting at the ICTTP 2012.
- Anat Meir my Ph.D. student will be presenting work that we have conducted in the dome projection facility with children. The title of the presentation is “Hazard perception abilities among child-pedestrians in a Dome-settings Environment” on Wednesday, 29th of August 2012.
- Studies in hazard perception in driving focus mainly on paradigms where participants are asked to observe short video clips of traffic situations from a driver’s perspective and press a response button each time they identify a hazard (see Horswill & McKenna (2004) for a review). Typically, when using this type of paradigm, young-novice drivers identify fewer potential hazards than experienced drivers and they are also slower. However, some studies did not find differences in response time (see Borowsky, Shinar, & Oron-Gilad, (2010)for example).
- Based on our thorough experience in analyzing these type of events we have developed a two-step analysis methodology. Dr. Yisrael Parmet will discuss the advantage and use of Survival Analysis in analyzing response times in driving related hazard perception paradigms on Friday, 31st of August 2012.
This fall our team will be presenting at HFES 2012 Annual meeting.
- “The use of a homogeneity measure to identify hazard perception abilities of novices and experienced drivers in a driving simulator” Omri Yona, Avinoam Borowsky, Tal Oron-Gilad and Yisrael Parmet
- Comparisons between young-novice and experienced drivers are beneficial for the development of both testing and training methodologies for young-novice drivers. Simulators are essential tools of driver assessment especially for novices. One way to look at the differences between driver groups is by examination of performance with regard to specific events. In addition, overall examination of performance across scenarios is important as it shows general patterns of behavior rather than specific ones. The common method to do so is by looking at the average of certain driving related measures or their variability. Using data derived from two hazard perception test (HPT) experiments in a driving simulator, we demonstrate how the use of a group homogeneity measure is more sensitive than the former two. Altogether, we demonstrate that consistently and regardless of road environment, experienced drivers manage their speed in a more homogenous way while novices act as inconsistent individuals.
- “The Costs and Benefits of the “On-Thigh Vibrotactile Alerting System for the Cockpit” in High-Workload Environment” Yael Salzer and Tal Oron-Gilad
- In the cockpit, an overloaded working environment, performance is prone to break down. Conveying crucial information through the tactile modality, which requires little to no additional effort, has been previously examined as means to improve performance and safety. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the on-thigh vibrotactile alerting display to convey directional cues in the vertical plane. We hypothesized that tactile directional alerting cues would be beneficial in a visually loaded multi tasking environment. Two tasks were introduced simultaneously: a directional task where participants respond to directional cues (visual, tactile, or combination of both), and a memory recall task where participants identify, count and recall objects embedded in flight movies. Response time, accuracy and subjective workload were evaluated. Performance in the memory recall task and subjective workload were in favor of the combined tactile & visual configuration. No performance difference was found between visual and tactile & visual in the directional task. We concluded that the redundant tactile & visual configuration may allow operators to choose a strategy in which perceptual and cognitive resources are better utilized.
- “Display type effects in military operational tasks using Unmanned Vehicle (UV) video images: comparison between color and B/W video feeds” Yaniv Minkov, Ronny Ophir-Arbelle and Tal Oron-Gilad
- The increased use of unmanned vehicles (UVs) in military environments requires development of guidelines to enable maximal compatibility between those technologies and users’ needs. Specifically, the way video feeds are delivered to dismounted soldiers may affect the utility of such information. This work follows previous studies on the type (e.g., size) of displays required by dismounted soldiers to process video feed from UVs in a variety of operational situations. Sixteen former infantry soldiers with no experience using UV video feed participated. Three display types were examined using color or B/W video feeds and three different operational tasks (identification, orientation and movement detection). Performance and subjective data were collected. Results showed an effect for display type only with regard to response time. Feed color and display type interacted. The 12″ Tablet black and white feeds produced the shortest responses.
Is more information better? How dismounted soldiers utilize video feed from unmanned vehicles – attention allocation and information extraction considerations
Ronny Ophir-Arbelle, Tal Oron-Gilad, Avinoam Borowsky and Yisrael Parmet
Background: Operational tactics in urban areas are often aided by information from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A major challenge for dismounted soldiers, particularity in urban environments is to understand the conflict area in general and particularly from the UAV feed. The UAV feed is usually used to enhance soldiers’ situation awareness abilities but less for identifying specific elements. Objective: A possible way to further enhance soldiers’ abilities is to provide them with multiple sources of information (e.g., aerial and ground views). This study examined the benefits of presenting video feed from unmanned aerial and ground vehicles (UAV/UGV) in a combined interface, relative to presenting aerial feed alone. Method: Thirty former infantry soldiers with no experience in operating unmanned vehicles participated. Objective performance, subjective evaluations and eye tracking patterns were examined, in two separate scenarios. Results: In Scenario one performance scores in both Identification and Orientation tasks were superior in the combined configuration. In Scenario two performance scores in the Identification tasks were improved and the addition of the UGV feed did not harm performance in the Orientation task. Eye movement scanning patterns reinforced that both UAV and UGV feeds were used for the mission. Conclusion: The combined configuration generated consistent benefits with regard to the Identification tasks, perceived mental demand, and reduction of false reports without having any apparent cost on participants. Application: Ground views may provide additional support to dismounted soldiers.
Here is a sample video feed of the eye scanning pattern of a single participant derived from Scenario 2. Note how the participant utilizes the C2 map (to the right) and both video sources.
Passive Operators\Information Consumers differ from operators and need special attention and interfaces to support their operational missions.
Here are some of the differences to consider:
- Operational environment does not necessarily resemble the one of the unmanned system’s operator
- Experience and expertise is different
- Dismounted soldiers are limited in the weight and size of devices they can carry
- Missions are diverse and often stressful
- Information is provided from multiple sources (unmanned systems, commanders, others)
- Multiple video feeds from various sources – the passive operator may not be aware or familiar with each system and its characteristics – operators are supposed to know their systems’ limitations well
- Communication chains with active operators are indirect or blocked
We have been continuously working on developing interfaces for “passive” operators. See also Scalable interfaces for dismounted soldiers–displaying multiple video feed sources simultaneously
Here are two images from the current study: one of the interface and one of the scanning patterns of a sample participant. From the scanning pattern it is notable that the stronger routes are between the UAV and the map and the UAV and the UGV feed.