Posts Tagged AAHPT

Can child-pedestrians’ hazard perception skills be enhanced?

Here is a fresh publication on Child pedestrians. We introduce here, for the first time, the Child-pedestrians Anticipate and Act Hazard Perception Training (CA2HPT), which is based on the same principles as our Act and Anticipate Hazard Perception Training (AAHPT) for young novice drivers.

Meir Anat, Oron-Gilad Tal and Yisrael Parmet (2015). Can child-pedestrians’ hazard perception skills be enhanced?Accident Analysis and Prevention 83 101–110.

Highlights

  • Hazard perception (HP) is the ability to read the road and anticipate future events.
  • 7–9-Year-olds’ HP skills were trained in a simulated dome projection environment.
  • Training utilized a conceptually innovative approach taken from the driving HP domain.
  • Trainees were found to be more aware of potential hazards related to restricted field of view relative to control
  • Child-pedestrians are responsive to training and actively detecting materialized hazards may enrich their ability to cross roads.

Abstract

Objective: Traffic collisions yield a substantial rate of morbidity and injury among child-pedestrians. We explored the formation of an innovative hazard perception training intervention – Child-pedestrians Anticipate and Act Hazard Perception Training (CA2HPT). Training was based upon enhancing participants’ ability to anticipate potential hazards by exposing them to an array of traffic scenes viewed from different angles.

Method: Twenty-four 7–9-year-olds have participated. Trainees underwent a 40-min intervention of observing typical residentialtraffic scenarios ina simulated dome projectionenvironment while engaging in a hazard detection task. Trainees were encouraged to note differences between the scenarios presented to them from separate angles (a pedestrian’s point-of-view and a higher perspective angle). Next,trainees and control group members were required to perform crossing decision tasks.

Results: Trainees were found to be more aware of potential hazards related to restricted field of view relative to control.

Conclusions: Child pedestrians are responsive to training and actively detecting materialized hazards may enrich child-pedestrians’ ability to cross roads.

An example of an CAAHPT intervention scenario

An example of an CAAHPT intervention scenario. (1) taken from a child-pedestrian’s POV (above) and (2) taken from a higher, less restricting angle (below). Note that in the dome facility, participants saw one perfect continuous image but here in the figure, the images are shown as three overlapping screens. White rectangle is given only for emphasis; not

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Act and Anticipate Hazard Perception Training – AAHPT

AAHPT is a research effort aimed toward developing innovative training strategies for Hazard perception among young-inexperienced drivers.

  • AAHPT is still in its development stages. Nevertheless several experimental phases have already been completed
  • Initial findings concerning AAHPT training methodologies are available, those are constantly embedded into future development directions.

AAHPT principles

  • Intended for novice drivers who have already obtained the basic skills of driving (i.e., vehicle handling and maneuvering)
  • Enriching driving experience in a short period of time (i.e., in a condensed way)
  • Exposure to diverse real life driving situations (see below, residential, sparsely populated urban and inter-city areas)

residentialSparesely populated urban areaintercity

  • Training- Actual hazards vs. Testing- Potential hazards (i.e., less salient situations)
  • Data driven events-not are defined a priori (i.e., there is no one single master solution)
  • Goal standard of experienced drivers (performance of young-inexperienced is compared to a pool of data obtained
  • Variety of HP measurements

AAHPT variations

  • Active – Participants observe 63 HP video-based traffic scenes and are asked to press a response button each time they detect a hazardous situation.

Participants first observe a movie press a button each time they perceive a hazardous situation. Once, completed a text box appears and they have to specify the reason for their presses.

active 1active 2

  • Instructional – The ‘Instructional’ group underwent a theoretical tutorial, where written material concerning HP was followed by video-based examples. Participants were not asked to actively respond to situations, but rather to become familiar with concepts and examples.

Here are two sample slides taken from the Instructional-based training. The first leads to a discussion on different traffic environments and the second shows a specific example of pedestrians in an urban area including tips and information. This snapshot was taken from one of the 63 videos of traffic scenes used in the AAHPT training.

InstructionalInstructional1

  • Hybrid – The ‘Hybrid’ participants observed a concise theoretical component first (similar to the ‘Instructional’ mode) followed by a shortened active component (similar to the ‘Active’ mode). This mode enables the young-inexperienced drivers to receive both theoretical information as well as to act and respond.

HPT (Hazard Perception Test)

  • Observe 58  HP movies and  press a response button each time they detect a hazard similar way as in the Active training but different movies with less salient hazards (see following images left-training, the hazard (e.g., vehicle) is apparent whereas right-testing the hazard is not apparent ,i.e., potential danger).

training1testing 1

To read more:

Borowsky, A., Oron-Gilad, T., Meir A. and Parmet Y. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society’s 54th Annual Meeting. California, September 27-October 1, 2010.

Meir, Borowsky, Oron-Gilad, Parmet and Shinar. Act and Anticipate Hazard Perception Training for Young-Inexperienced Drivers, The 3rd International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE), July 17-20, 2010. see book chapter online http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/EBK1439835074-c15

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