Archive for category Affective Design

Perceptions of electronic navigation displays

Lavie, T. and Oron-Gilad, T., Perception of navigation displays, Behaviour & Information Technology, (in press) accepted November 2011.

Abstract

This study evaluated aesthetics and usability of in-vehicle electronic navigation maps. Experiment 1 examined map displays that varied in the amount of information presented, abstraction level, graphic/color style, and the existence of landmarks in both urban and rural environments using objective and subjective measures. Twenty participants performed navigation/localization tasks using various map configurations while driving a driving simulator and completed usability and aesthetic questionnaires (using the Perceived aesthetics and usability questionnaire items for maps). The minimal detail map produced better performances and higher usability and aesthetic ratings when using maps with no landmarks. Adding information in the form of landmarks was found advantageous compared to additional textual information. Abstractions were most advantageous when combined with minimal amount of detail. Moderate abstractions were sufficient for obtaining the desired benefits when more details were present. The graphic/color style affected subjective perceptions. Overall, high correlations were found for the perceived aesthetics and usability scales, however, low correlations were found between actual usability (i.e., performance) and perceived usability pointing to the importance of using both objective and subjective usability measures. Experiment 2 examined how maps varying in their aesthetic level (aesthetic versus non-aesthetic), different color arrangements, and 2D versus 3D landmarks affect subjective and objective measures. Participants distinguished between usability and aesthetic perceptions and usability perceptions were less affected by aesthetics when the aesthetic level of the maps was low. Color arrangement did not affect the measures examined. Both 2D and 3D landmarks were found to be aesthetic and usable. We conclude this paper with guidelines for designing in-vehicle navigation map displays.

Here are some map images:

Examples of maps with more (right maps) and less (left maps) information for the rural (upper row) and urban (bottom row) settings

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Rural maps showing examples of the three graphic styles used in Experiment 1 (a-c) and an example of the additional non-aesthetic color palette used in Experiment 2

(a) Contemporary Blueimage (b) Traditional Grayimage (c) Realistic Green

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(d) Non-aesthetic color combination

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Examples of landmarks in an urban map

No landmarks

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Few landmarks – close to the route

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Many landmarks

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Perceptions of electronic navigation displays

Electronic navigation maps

  • support drivers when travelling within unfamiliar areas
  • need to support several tasks; visual search, location assessment, and complex integrative route planning
  • are used while driving, when drivers should not take more than quick glances at them, it is essential that they do not impair driving safety.
  • will become a necessity in future vehicle configurations, i.e., as vehicles become more semi-autonomous and drivers changre from active operators of the vehicle to passive monitors

The study

  • examined different display formats to better support usability and aesthetic requirements.
  • aimed to validate the results found by Lavie, Oron-Gilad and Meyer (2010).
  • further examine additional design attributes – focusing on:
    • graphic style
    • landmarks and how landmarks affect aesthetic perceptions
    • rural and urban road maps

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Figure 1. Examples of maps in a ‘Traditional elegant monochromatic’ graphic style, with more (right maps) and less (left maps) information for the rural (upper row) and urban (bottom row) settings.

Experiment 2 further examined maps with non-aesthetic graphic styles to see how that affects usability perception and actual use.

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Figure 1. Examples of maps. Right: a ‘Realistic green’ graphic style, Left: an illustration of an ‘arbitrary’ color arrangement, i.e., the color coded areas do not correspond with the driver’s route.

To read more, look for:

Talia Lavie and Tal Oron-Gilad, Perception of navigation displays, to appear in Behaviour & Information Technology

Abstract

This study evaluated aesthetics and usability of in-vehicle electronic navigation maps. Experiment 1 examined map displays that varied in the amount of information presented, abstraction level, graphic/color style, and the existence of landmarks in both urban and rural environments using objective and subjective measures. Twenty participants performed navigation/localization tasks using avrious map configurations while driving a driving simulator and completed usability and aesthetic questionnaires. The minimal detail map produced better performances and higher usability and aesthetic ratings when using maps with no landmarks. Adding information in the form of landmarks was found advantageous compared to additional textual information. Abstractions were most advantageous when combined with minimal amount of detail. Moderate abstractions were sufficient for obtaining the desired benefits when more details were present. The graphic/color style affected subjective perceptions. Overall, high correlations were found for the perceived aesthetics and usability scales, however, low correlations were found between actual usability (i.e., performance) and perceived usability pointing to the importance of using both objective and subjective usability measures. Experiment 2 examined how maps varying in their aesthetic level (aesthetic versus non-aesthetic), different color arrangements, and 2D versus 3D landmarks affect subjective and objective measures. Participants distinguished between usability and aesthetic perceptions and usability perceptions were less affected by aesthetics when the aesthetic level of the maps was low. Color arrangement did not affect the measures examined. Both 2D and 3D landmarks were found to be aesthetic and usable. We conclude this paper with guidelines for designing in-vehicle navigation map displays.

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Join IEA Technical Committee (TC) on Affective Design

How to Join & Who to Contact?

Membership is FREE presently. Anyone who is interested in Affective Design may join. Complete the Registration Form, and return to the Chair/Co-Chair of the committee. Please send an email with your name, affiliation and contact information to

Dr. Halimahtun Khalid halimahtun@damai-sciences.com or Dr. Tal Oron-Gilad tal.orongilad@gmail.com

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Why Affective Design TC?

Affective design of products and systems is a promising and dynamic field of research and application in human factors engineering, HCI, product design, computer science and engineering design. Several thematic conferences and dedicated workshops have been organized globally, such as Affective Human Factors Design (2001), Emotions and Design (2003, 2008), Emotional Design (2004), and KEER (2010). Publications on Affective Design have also appeared in journals such as Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, Applied Ergonomics, and Research in Engineering Design, besides books authored by various human factors professionals, product designers, engineers, and computer scientists.  

Given the growing global and multi-disciplinary interests, there is a need for the international ergonomics community to integrate the many threads of interdisciplinary issues underlying this domain, from theories, methods to application. The Affective Design Technical Committee (TC) has the goal to develop, synergize and promote the field of research and application through collaborative initiatives between researchers and practitioners.

What Objectives?

· To document and develop theories and methods in Affective Design for design purposes;

· To integrate research and practices in design of affective user interfaces;

· To participate and/or organize collaborative events for researchers and practitioners in academia and industry to share solutions;

· To publish works in the form of practical solutions for application in different domains from consumer goods to medical equipment.

How Implemented?

· Conference participation

The TC has organized special sessions at major events such as WWCS 2006, IEEM 2008, IEA 2009, KEER 2010. 

Upcoming conferences:

  • ODAM 2011 session will map Affective/Emotional design within the IEA Ergonomics Quality in Design (EQUID) framework.
  • Call for submission has just been released for IEA 2012. We aim for substantial presence in IEA 2012 in various formats.

· Research and Application

The TC will identify niche areas for research investigation that can impact design methodologies and policies. TC members can also participate in the Ergonomics Quality in Product Design (EQUID) initiatives, in determining how affective design methodologies may be integrated into EQUID processes.

· Partnerships

The TC collaborates with the Product Design TC in organizing joint meetings, including the triennial meeting. There is a need to complement each other in research and development.

It has initiated collaborations with KEER 2010 organizers, in providing IEA support to the International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research, www.keer2010.eu. Among the partners are Japan Society of Kansei Engineering, and Design & Emotion Society

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Aesthetics and usability of in-vehicle navigation displays

For those of you interested in the relationship between aesthetics and usability, we have recently published a new article in this area specifically related to in-vehicle navigation maps.

Aesthetics and usability of in-vehicle navigation displays .  International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69(1-2), 80-99.

Talia Lavie, Tal Oron-Gilad, Joachim Meyer

Research Highlights

►In vehicle navigation maps with minimal detail were found to be most aesthetic and usable. ►Moderately abstracted maps were sufficient for obtaining usability and aesthetic benefits. ►The color schema of navigation maps did not affect perceived aesthetics and usability. ►High connections were found between perceived aesthetics and perceived usability. ►Users’ usability evaluations were not always in line with their actual performances.

Abstract

This research evaluates the aesthetics and usability of various in-vehicle electronic navigation map configurations. Study 1 adapted the aesthetics scale (Lavie and Tractinsky, 2004) to accommodate evaluations of map displays. Study 2 examined map displays that vary in the amount of information presented, their abstraction level and color schema, using objective and subjective usability measures. Maps with minimal detail produced best performances and highest evaluations. Abstractions were found to be advantageous when combined with reduced amount of detail and specific color schemas. Moderate abstractions were sufficient for obtaining the desired benefits. The color schema mainly affected the objective measures, pointing to the importance of good contrast between the cursor and the map colors. Study 3 further examined map schemas. Color schemas again had no effect on the perceptions of aesthetics and usability. Overall, similar results and high correlations were found for the perceived aesthetics and usability scales, indicating the connection between perceived aesthetics and usability. Lower correlations were found between the actual usability (performance) and the aesthetics scale. Finally, users’ usability evaluations were not always in line with their actual performance, pointing to the importance of using objective usability measures.

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